Has your instructor mentioned this author? Have you seen the author's name cited in other sources or bibliographies? Respected authors are cited frequently by other scholars. For this reason, always note those names that appear in many different sources. After a research finding has been claimed based on achieving formal statistical significance, the post-study probability that it is true is the positive predictive value, PPV. The PPV is also the complementary probability of what Wacholder et al. Abstract Summary There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. Have called the false positive report probability 10. According to the 2 2 table, one gets PPV (1 - ) R R - R ). A research finding is thus more likely true than false if (1 - ) R.
With increasing number of independent studies, PPV tends to decrease, unless 1 - a, i.e., typically 1 0.05. This is shown for different levels of power and for different pre-study odds in Figure 2.
Полицейские и воры, министры и проститутки, мошенники от политики и карманники от юриспруденции, садисты и мазохисты, философы и самоубийцы, императоры и газетчики, особи века сего и веков минувших что объединило всю эту столь разношерстную команду под одной обложкой? (Третий полицейский) Автор: ОБрайен Флэнн Жанр: Современная проза Описание: Книги Флэнна ОБрайена удостаивались восторженных похвал Джойса и Грэма Грина, Сарояна и Берджесса, Апдайка и Беккета. Но.
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